Advanced Machining Processes

General Engineering (Manufacturing)

Advanced machining processes (AMPs) or un-conventional machining processes are the groups of machining methods that do not utilize a conventional tool (as used in conventional machining) for the removal of material. Therefore, hard and delicate parts can be machined by utilizing energy in different forms for material removal. Here the general information of some of the commonly used AMPs are discussed:

Abrasive Jet Machining AJM process employs a high-velocity jet consisting of abrasive particles carried by the pressurized gas/air for the removal of material. This is categorized as the mechanical-based AMPs as erosion is caused by the kinetic energy of the abrasive-gas mixture. Complicated profiles can be cut using the AJM process besides deburring, cleaning of the metal parts.

AJM setup  EDM

Technical specifications:

Technical Specifications of a typical AJM/abrasive cleaning equipment marble shot blasting machine

Product name

Stone shot blasting machine

Applied to what material

Marble,stone,slabs, etc

Applicable industry

Marble,stone,slabs industry

Function

Improve anti-fatigue performance. Improve corrosion resistance

Voltage

380V/50HZ or 220V/60HZ

Warranty

One year

Power

Electricity

Certificate

CE. ISO,9001

Model

ZJ

PLC

Siemens, Omron

Productivity

Customized

Low voltage

Schneider

Condition

New

Brand

Dongheng

Color

Customized

Size

Customized

Cleaning method

Automatic

Electrical control system

Auto-detection,auto-alarm and auto-cutout

Material

metal/coil

Origin

Shandong,China

Cleaning material

shot steel/shot grit/wire cut etc.

After-sales service

Engineers available to service oversea

Abrasive Water Jet Machining uses an accelerated combination of fluid and solid particles to distort or remove the target material. The jet can be made of any liquid, but for economic and environmental reasons, a mixture of water and air is commonly employed. Because water has a higher density, it exerts a stronger impact pressure during machining.

AWJM machine

Technical specifications:

Technical Specifications of a typical AWJM machine

Working table (mm× mm)

3000 ×1500

 X-axis stroke (mm) 

300

X-axis speed (m/min)

0-15

 Y-axis stroke (mm)

1520

Y-axis speed (m/min)

0-15

Z-axis stroke (mm)

200

Z-axis speed (m/min)

0-12

Control accuracy (mm)

+/-0.01

Cutting accuracy (mm)

+/-0.01

High-pressure system 

HY. precision pump

Total electric power (kw)

65

Max. load of the working table (Kg)

1000 

Format supported 

al., plt, dxf, etc

Machine weight (kgs)

4650 

Outside dimensions (mm× mm× mm)

4550 ×2550 ×1850 

Intensifier pump 

50hp, 60,000 Psi

Ultrasonic Machining, also known as ultrasonic vibration grinding, is a method of removing material from a workpiece using a vibrating tool that oscillates at ultrasonic frequencies. Between the tool and the workpiece, an abrasive slurry is used. As a result, there is no direct interaction between the tool and the workpiece.

USM machine

Technical specifications:

Technical specifications of a typical AWJM machine

Machine Specifications*

OptiSonic 830

OptiSonic 840

OptiSonic 850

OptiSonic 850X

Travels

X-Axis Travel

800 mm (31.5″)

800 mm (31.5″)

800 mm (31.5″)

800 mm (31.5″)

Y-Axis Travel

490 mm (19.3″)

490 mm (19.3″)

490 mm (19.3″)

490 mm (19.3″)

Z-Axis Travel

550 mm (21.6″)

550 mm (21.6″)

550 mm (21.6″)

550 mm (21.6″)

B-Axis Travel

N/A

-90° to 90° (Optional)

-90° to 90°

-90° to 90°

C-Axis Travel

N/A

0° to 360° (Optional)

0° to 360°

0° to 360°

 

Workpiece

Part Size

775 mm x 465 mm (30.5″ x 18.3″)

775 mm x 465 mm (30.5″ x 18.3″)

775 mm x 465 mm (30.5″ x 18.3”)

5-400 mm (.2 – 15.7”)

Max. Plano Diameter**

N/A

N/A

N/A

450 mm (17.7″)

Max. Weight

600 kg (1322.8 lbs.)

250 kg (550 lbs.)

250 kg (550 lbs.)

154 kg (340 lbs.)

Workpiece Rotation

Positional C-Axis

Positional C-Axis

Work Spindle

Spindle Speed

N/A

N/A

N/A

0-200 RPM

Hydro-Expansion Chuck

Optional

Standard

Standard

Standard

C-Axis Position and Hold

N/A

Standard

Standard

Standard

Tool Spindle

Maximum Tool Diameter***

250 mm (9.8″)

250 mm (9.8″)

250 mm (9.8″)

250 mm (9.8″)

Maximum Tool Weight

6 kg (13.2 lbs.)

6 kg (13.2 lbs.)

6 kg (13.2 lbs.)

6 kg (13.2 lbs.)

Tool Spindle Speed

1,000-18,000 RPM

1,000-18,000 RPM

1,000-18,000 RPM

1,000-18,000 RPM

Maximum Power

18kW (24hp)

18kW (24hp)

18kW (24hp)

18kW (24hp)

Tool Holder Style

HSK63F

HSK63F

HSK63F

HSK63F

Coolant Through Spindle

Standard

Standard

Standard

Standard

Automatic Tool Changer

24-tool Swing-Arm (Standard)

24-tool Swing-Arm (Machine with C-Axis)
6-tool Swing-Arm (Machine with B-Axis)

6-tool Swing-Arm (Optional)

6-tool Swing-Arm (Optional)

Workpiece Probing

Standard

Standard

Standard

Standard

Tool Probing

Standard

Standard

Standard

Standard

Integrated Spherometer

N/A

N/A

N/A

Optional

Asphere Fabrication

N/A

N/A

N/A

Optional

Freeform Fabrication

N/A

Optional

Optional

Optional

Electrical Discharge Machining  is an electro-thermal based AMP process. The material removal in the EDM process occurs due to sparking between two electrodes cathode and anode submerged in the dielectric fluid. The energy of sparks melts/partially evaporates the workpiece material to form a negative image of the tool on the workpiece. Only electrically conductive materials can be processed via. the EDM process. Tool wear also occurs during the machining due to the heat of discharge being shared by the tool. Higher-dimensional accuracy and complex micro-features are possible to be obtained through this process.

EDM machine tool (DT-110)

Technical specifications:

Technical Specifications of a typical EDM machine

 Electric Power supply 

230 V, 50/60 Hz

Voltage 

80 to 130 V steps of 1 V

Capacitance

0.4 μF, 0.1 μF, 10 nF, 1nF, 0.1 nF and 10 pF

Spindle rotational speed 

1 to 5000 rpm

Feed rate 

5 to 100 μm/s

Axes resolution 

100 nm

Accuracy

+/- 1μm

 Repeatability 

1 μm

Table working surface 

350 x 200 mm

Attachments

Wire-EDM, wire-EDG

Accessories 

On machine measurement

Machining operations

Conventional drilling, micro-turning, EDM and ECM

Electrochemical Machining (ECM) is a type of machining in which materials are removed from a workpiece using an electrochemical dissolution. The workpiece acts as an anode, while the tool acts as a cathode in this process. An electrolyte is used to submerge the two electrodes, workpiece, and tool (such as NaCl). Material removal from the workpiece begins when a voltage is introduced across the two electrodes.

ECM machine tool, Make synergy Nanosystems

Technical specifications:

Technical Specifications of an ECM machine

General features

Description/specifications

Machine configuration 

Robust column structure

Machine travel

Maximum travel: X-130 mm, Y-75 mm, Z-80 mm

Work table size

X-260 mm, Y-110 mm, Z-100 mm

Travel accuracy

+/- 5 μm for all axes

Repeatability 

+/- 1 μm for all axes

Side straightness

+/- 1 μm for all axes

Position control system

5-phase stepper motor with resolution of 0.1 μm micro stepping

Control system

Hybrid precision original controller with GUI

Compatibility

Standard NC codes

Spindle type

BLDC motor (300-3000 RPM)

 

 

Standard options

Stepper motor type spindle for EDM operation

Flushing for EDM deep hole drilling

Wire-EDG 

Integrated sensors for -high-speed drilling

Miniature Wire-EDM setup

Laser Beam Machining is a type of thermal machining in which a laser beam is used to generate heat and remove material from the workpiece. Metal is removed from the workpiece using heat from a laser to melt and vapourize metal particles on its surface in a controlled manner. Laser Beam Machining is commonly utilised in sheet metal fabrication and hole drilling.

An epilog laser beam machine (Image source: https://www.epiloglaser.com/laser-machines/fusionm2-techspecs.htm)

Technical specifications:

Technical Specifications of anepilog laser beam machine (Source: https://www.epiloglaser.com/laser-machines/fusionm2-techspecs.htm)

 


Epilog Fusion M2 32

Epilog Fusion M2 40

Engraving Area

32″ x 20″
(812 x 508 mm)

40″ x 28″
(1016 x 711 mm)

Maximum Material Thickness

CO2: 13.5″ (343 mm) (2″ lens)
Fiber: 12.5″ (318 mm) (3″ lens)
Dual Source: 12.5″ (318 mm) (3″ lens)

CO2: 13.25″ (337 mm) (2″ lens)
Fiber: 12.25″ (311 mm) (3″ lens)
Dual Source: 12.25″ (311 mm) (3″ lens)

Laser Wattage

CO2: 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, or 120 watts
Fiber: 30 or 50 watts

 Dual source: CO2 50, 60, or 75 watts;
Fiber 30 or 50 watts

CO2: 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, or 120 watts
Fiber: 30 or 50 watts

 Dual source: CO2 50, 60, or 75 watts;
Fiber 30 or 50 watts

Laser Source

State-of-the-art, digitally controlled, air-cooled CO2 laser tubes are fully modular, permanently aligned and field replaceable.

Intelligent Memory Capacity

Multiple file storage up to 128 MB.

Air Assist

Attach an air compressor to our included Air Assist to remove heat and combustible gases from the cutting surface by directing a constant stream of compressed air across the cutting surface.

Laser Dashboard

The Laser Dashboard™ controls your Epilog Laser’s settings from a wide range of software packages – from design programs to spreadsheet applications to CAD drawing packages.

Red Dot Pointer

Since the laser beam is invisible, the Red Dot Pointer on the Fusion Laser allows you to have a visual reference for locating where the laser will fire.

Relocatable Home

When engraving items that are not easily placed at the top corner of the laser, you can set a new home position by hand with the convenient Movable Home Position feature on the Fusion Series Lasers.

Operating Modes

Optimized raster, vector or combined modes.

Motion Control System

High-speed Brushless DC Servo Motors.

X-Axis Bearings

Ground and polished stainless steel Long-Lasting Bearing System.

Belts

Kevlar (x-axis) and Steel Cord (y-axis) belts.

Resolution

User controlled from 75 to 1200 dpi.

Speed and Power Control

Computer or manually control speed and power in 1% increments to 100%. Vector color mapping links speed, power and focus to any RGB color.

Print Interface

10 Base-T Ethernet or USB Connection. Compatible with Windows® XP/Vista/7/8/10.

Size (W x D x H)

52.5″ x 33.75″ x 40.75″
(1334 x 857 x 1035 mm)
37.75″ (959 mm) deep with exhaust plenum.

60.5″ x 41.25″ x 42.25″
(1537 x 1048 x 1073 mm)
43″ (1092 mm) deep with exhaust plenum.

Weight

500 lbs (227 kg)
Dual Source: 536 lbs (243 kg)

643 lbs (292 kg)
Dual Source: 679 lbs (308 kg)

Electrical Requirements

Auto-switching power supply accommodates 110 to 240 volts, 50 or 60 Hz, single phase.

Maximum Table Weight

Fusion 32/40: 200 lbs (90 kg) for static and 100 lbs (46 kg) for lifting.

Ventilation System

650 CFM (1104 m3/hr) external exhaust to the outside or internal filtration system is required. There are two output ports, 4″ (102 mm) in diameter.

650 CFM (1104 m3/hr) external exhaust to the outside or internal filtration system is required. There are two output ports, 4″ (102 mm) in diameter

Plasma Arc Machining (PAM) is a metal removal technique that involves focusing a high-velocity jet of high-temperature ionized gas on the workpiece at temperatures ranging from 11,000°C to 30,000°C. A volume of gas, such as H2, N2, O2, or other gases, is passed through a small chamber in which a high-frequency spark (arc) is maintained between the tungsten electrode (cathode) and the copper nozzle (anode), both of which are water-cooled, in a plasma torch, known as the gun.

Plasma arc machining machine (Image source: https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/heavy-duty-plasma-cutting-machine-20843857388.html)

Technical specifications:

Technical Specifications of a typical plasma arc machining machine (Source: https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/heavy-duty-plasma-cutting-machine-20843857388.html/)

Brand/Make

Pro-Arc

Cutting Method

Plasma

Model Number/Name

ProCut

Positioning Speed

0 – 12,000 mm/min

Effective Cutting Width

1.25 – 8 m

Effective cutting length

Infinite – Modular rails ensure long lengths for the machine

Cutting Thickness

0.5 – 120 mm MS by plasma cutting,1 – 160 mm SS by plasma cutting