1. Turning machine (Lathe)

1.1. Horizontal lathe

Answer: Generally, cylindrical, conical or spherical shape jobs are processed.

Answer: Single point tool cutting tools with well-defined cutting edges are used.  

Answer: Yes, other than turning, we can perform operations like drilling, boring, etc.

Answer: Well ventilated with enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Both tool and work piece are moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair and other workshop safety devices are required.

Answer: Medium level skill required to operate the machine.

1.2. Vertical lathe

Answer: Big bulky works requiring several features.

Answer: It is mounted on a vertically oriented clamping device.

Answer: A single point cutting tool similar to a horizontal lathe machine.

Answer: Well ventilated with enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Both tool and work piece are moving.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair and other workshop safety devices are required.

1.3. CNC lathe

Answer: Complex parts that can be modelled in CAD software and within limitations.

Answer: It is a computerized numerical control.

Answer: Well ventilated with enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Three, i.e. heat stock, tool post and mill head, tool holder, etc.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, safe distance, view window and other workshop safety devices are required.

Answer: High-level skills required to perform operations.

Answer: It is a semi-automatic machine as job loading, unloading, tool settings are done manually.

2. Turn-Mill

Answer: Complex parts like gear requiring multiple features.

Answer: Operation related to a lathe and milling machine can be performed.

Answer: Well ventilated with enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Three, i.e. headstock, tool post and mill head.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair and other workshop safety devices are required.

3. CNC Mill

Answer: Complex parts that can be modelled in CAD Software and within limitations

Answer: Well ventilated with enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Three, i.e. heat stock, tool post and mill head, tool holder etc.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, safe distance, view window and other workshop safety devices are required.

Answer: It is a semi-automatic machine.

Answer: Yes, a CAD file imported to the machine can generate CNC codes.

4. Grinding machines

4.1. Manual grinder

Answer: Non-precision grinding of parts and tool.

Answer: A grinding wheel consisting of abrasives bonded together to form a cutting tool.

Answer: No, it’s a surface finishing process

Answer: Well ventilated with enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Grinding wheel is the rotating part that rotates at high speed.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety devices are required.

Answer: Low-level skill required for this machine tool.

4.2 Surface grinder

Answer: Precision grinding of parts and tool and surface finishing.

Answer: Well ventilation with vacuum suction, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Grinding wheel & job holder are the moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety devices are required.

Answer: Yes, coolants are necessary to dissipate the heat and avoid thermal damage.

Answer: Yes. Heat is generated during operation.

4.3 Centerless grinder

Answer: Finishing grinding for workpiece in a particular orientation.

Answer: No fixture is needed to hold the job.

Answer: Yes, this process is more suitable for delicate and irregular parts.

Answer: Well ventilation with vacuum suction, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Pair of grinding wheels are the moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety

4.4 Internal grinder

Answer: Finishing & grinding for internal cylindrical features.

Answer: Internal hole and bore are the major components.

Answer: Well ventilation, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Grinding wheels/tools are the moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety

Answer: Yes, a grinding tool is used.

4.5 CNC Grinder

Answer: Cutting of profiles like keyway, slots, fillets, gear etc.

Answer: Well ventilation, coolant, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Cutting tool & Job are the moving parts.

Answer: Non tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety devices are required.

5. Vertical milling center (VMC)

Answer: Cutting of profiles like keyway, slots, fillets etc.

Answer: Well ventilation, coolant, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Cutting tool and job are the moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety devices are required.

6. Drill Tap Machining Center

Answer: Cutting of internal thread (taping) & combined taping and drill.

Answer: To machine internal threads on the predrilled holes.

Answer: It is always smaller than the tap size.

Answer: Well ventilation, coolant, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Cutting tool and job are the two moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety devices are required.

7. 5-Axis machine

Answer: Machining of complex parts automatically designed in CAM software.

Answer: Machines having movement in three linear and two rotational axes.

Answer: Well ventilation, coolant, view window, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Cutting tool, tool holder & Job.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety devices are required.

8. Cutting machines

8.1. Wire cutting and drawing

Answer: Wire drawing and coil making are the primary operations.

Answer: Well ventilation, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Ram, Pulleys, wheels are the moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair and other workshop safety

Answer: A special die is used as a tool through which the material is extruded.

8.2 Wire Straightening Machine

Answer: This operation is used in making metal wire straight.

Answer: Well ventilation, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Cutting tool and job are the major moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, and other workshop safety devices are required.

8.3 Oxy-fuel plasma

Answer: Cutting sheet metals & profiles.

Answer: Ionized gas at high temperature. It is the 4th state of matter.

Answer: Thermal based process as the material is removed due to melting/evaporation caused by the plasma.

Answer: Well ventilation, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Plasma creator/ nozzle are the moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, safe distance, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety

Answer: Medium level skills required to perform the task.

8.4 Laser

Answer: Precise Cut of Sheet Metal and Profiles.

Answer: Yes, any materials (electrically conductive and non-conductive) can be processed. However, less suitable for materials having high reflectivity.

Answer: Taper is generally produced in the hole during the hole drilling operation.

Answer: Yes, HAZ are present in the machined components due to applied thermal load and high-temperature gradient in the workpiece.

Answer: Well ventilation, vacuum suction, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Laser head or machine axes are the major moving parts in a laser.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety

9. Drilling machine

Answer: Drilling is primarily used to make blind, stepped, and through holes in various materials.

Answer: Yes, step drilling is possible by drilling the entire holes into the number of steps for evacuation of chips.

Answer: Drill is a kind of multi-point drill that is used to remove material through the shearing operation.

Answer: These are performed by the helical grooves provided on the drill.

Answer: Well ventilation, coolant, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Brill bit and chuck are the two moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, and other workshop safety devices are required.

Answer: Low-level skills are required to select suitable drill speed, tool feed, etc.

10. Plastic & Rubber

10.1. Plastic Injection Molding Machines

Answer: Any moldable shape and material with required pattern die.

Answer: Well ventilation, environment controlled, enough lighting, firm & level ground.

Answer: Screw conveyor, die parts are the moving parts.

Answer: Non-tangling dress, tied hair, goggles, respiration protection and other workshop safety

Answer: Medium level skills are necessary for the successful working of the process.

Answer: Hydraulic, mechanical and electrical are the major injection molding machines.

Answer: Injection and clamping units are the major units in typical injection molding machines.